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Methods of preparation of sport referees
Fedor Dmitriev, International referee, PhD
Considering methods of the physical preparation of the basketball referees it is necessary to note the necessity of availability of quickness and aerobic endurance required for high-quality work. If to talk about the psychological and pedagogical preparation it is necessary to consider own mindset, autogenic training, ideomotor training, breathing exercises. When preparing to an exercise and selecting means and methods optimal for a certain stage the teacher shall stipulate their structure in order to strengthen, for example, the motivation or pedagogical, educational or developing functions.

Preparation of the referee – is a complex, multi-component, multifactor system. Both the success of the process of preparation and its final result depend on consistency of its component subsystems and blocks. At that the more factors are taken into account, the better and more reliable the result.

In the considered structure of preparation the functional basis is made up by skills of the referee to assess and think out the detected situation quickly and objectively and then to make a correct decision timely and efficiently in order to achieve the best results in specific situations of his activity. As the referee comprehends the technique, acquires knowledge, skills and forms stable connections and skills the volume of the perceived information with him increases. For the given purpose we need a precise system of assimilation of the received material, its analysis and systematization, i.e. creation of the own data base and transfer of knowledge of the subject into its understanding.

High-qualified refereeing creates necessary conditions for increase of the mastery of sportsmen. Quality of refereeing shall not contradict to the rules of the game and shall serve as a tool of the qualified and timely assessment of knowledge, abilities and skills of coaches and players.

Physical preparation is an important part of each stage of preparation of the referee. It is mainly directed to development of the endurance, quickness and flexibility. Training of physical properties, as well as development of a set of motor abilities (endurance, speed abilities) connected therewith provide efficiency of the referee's activity. Resolution of the given tasks is exercised in the process of the general and specialized physical preparation.
Principles of the general physical preparation

General physical preparation provides the comprehensive physical development and increase of the level of general work capacity of the referee, creates preconditions for efficient manifestation of special physical properties. Referees and sportsmen quickly lose their physical shape if they stop any exercises for a long period of time, and they don't always manage to get the physical shape back and to lose the excess weight quickly and easily. Therefore, the basis, a foundation of readiness to competitions of a new season shall be laid within the period of preparation to main competitions.

For basketball referees the following expression is fair: "your legs are your eyes". The referee can get tired mentally from the psychological pressure at the end of the game, buy never physically. He always shall be in the right place, at the right time on the court to make a correct decision. It is necessary to understand that unprepared and untrained referee will not simply manage to track the process of the game and to react to action of players. Such a referee will mistaken for sure.

When officiating basketball games referees load their knee and ankle joints carrying the main load due to the great number of stoppages, shifts of movement direction etc. If you want to be a professional referee you should maintain the good physical shape constantly. Therefore, physical preparation is the one of determining factors upon preparation of well-qualified referees.

According to the data of researches, the basketball referee when refereeing two - person officiating runs about 4.5–5.5 kilometers, and in case three - person officiating – up to 4 kilometers per game. Therefore, basketball referees shall be well prepared to the physical work within the whole game, i.e. to be able to perform their work at the necessary due level for a long period of time without any visible ultimate exhaustion.

High tension of games requires from referees constant manifestation of the endurance, i.e. the ability to withstand the exhaustion appearing as a result of the load. The referee having a sufficient endurance can retain high productivity for a longer time and demonstrate stable performance of his work. And the good endurance give the referee an additional opportunity to adapt to the emotional and stress background in the game situation and to restore after the load quickly.

Aerobic capabilities of the human increase by trainings of the moderate and high intensity with the heart rate of 120–150 beats per minute and duration of work of from 30 to 45 minutes. Aerobic training lays the base for faster restoration of the organism after the load, as well as for more efficient oxygen consumption and its delivery to working muscles for production of the energy. Aerobic trainings are held with the periodicity of 2–3 sessions per week with the duration of up to 1 hour. These are ordinary cross running, walking and swimming with the subsequent graduate increase of the volume.

Improvement of the endurance is exercised continuously within the whole season. In order to determine intensity of physical exercises they use the heart rate indexes. If the heart rate at training exercises lies within the limits of 150 beats per minute, the load is directed to increase of the aerobic abilities of the referee (general endurance), if the heart rate is about 180 beats per minute or higher – the load is directed to increase of the anaerobic abilities, i.e. the speed endurance. Therefore, upon preparation of the referee to the forthcoming season it is necessary to provide correspondence of training loads and influence on the organism to the functional abilities and the level of preparation of the referee, as forcing of the load will only harm and may result in unforeseen injuries.

Special physical preparation plays the leading role in formation of motor abilities of the referee and directly depends on the development of the speed ability and of the special (speed) endurance.

The distinctive feature of manifestation of quickness with referees is the quick change of game situations. Quickness of the start acceleration and the distance speed are the foundation of quickness in the basketball. The main means to train quickness are exercises of the speed nature (various types of speedups, shuttle running, running with change of the direction, outdoor and sport games), which shall be done with the extreme (maximum) intensity. All types of training exercises shall approximately replicate motions and movements of the referee during the game.

Using of exercises of the aerobic and anaerobic nature in training is the main thing in preparation of the referee as the given exercises imply the load constantly met in the game. Competent using of all methods of training can give the positive effect upon performance of the work. For the given purpose it is necessary to use all available means of physical training in one's preparation consecutively, not forcing and systematically. The value and duration of the load in training exercises shall be strictly individual, i.e. in accordance with the age, season and level of readiness of the referee.

In the scientific literature there is a little attention paid to the interrelation of the physical and psychological preparation of basketball referees. There no data on the interrelation of reduction of the quality of refereeing, occurrence of the exhaustion (physical) and emotional excitation with referees during competitions. In other sports on the example of refereeing it has been shown that weak psychological and physical preparedness causes a negative effect on the game, prevents the referee from appearance of abilities and capabilities with him. Ability to withstand the fatigue can influence on the quality of refereeing.

Some authors have developed a system of pedagogical tests for evaluation of the physical shape of referees, which includes tests evaluating quickness, speed properties and speed endurance. It is necessary to note that the mechanics of movement of referees on the basketball court is closely connected with the run technique and is also an important section of the special physical preparation.
One of the main reasons of the low efficiency of the work of sport referees is their emotional instability, lack of confidence in decision-making and insufficient development of such volitional qualities as the will, dedication, initiative, determination, independence and persistence. The referee's ability to withstand the emotional influence and to perform his immediate duties, to make objective decisions and in case of need to have to admit and correct his mistakes is equally important.

When considering the psychological preparation it is necessary to note that the main problem of the referee in the game is inability to control his emotions and to regulate his emotional state. Having learnt to manage one's emotions it is possible to manage oneself and to control the surrounding reality.

In sport games the referee's time-and-space perception of game situations enabling him to make correct decisions quickly is of the great importance. At that it is important within a short period of time to make a decision necessary for the given game situation. However, it is rare to find in sport games referees with the equal dynamics of nervous processes. In this connection it is important that referees should have balanced processes of excitation and retardation. The closer the referee to such a balance, the more stable he is in his behavior in responses to various irritations. When the tension arises in the team of referees during the game, the role of the leader is especially important. In such situations it is important at the beginning of preparation to the game to create an atmosphere of mutual understanding. Such an atmosphere can be in the collective with the sole goal and equal tasks only.

Preparation of the referee starts long before the competitions. Each referee shall conceive tasks, volume and intensity of the training process. He shall prepare to the forthcoming sportive season purposefully, with full mobilization of the will and motivation to success. An especial role in preparation of referees is played by the competition practice.

In the modern sport many methods of regulation of the psychological state of participants (sportsmen, coaches) are applied, but they do not always effective. As the game develops, the level of training and competitions load increases, as the emotional tension in the work arises it is required from the referee to use various methods of regulation of his internal state. In the sport refereeing it is important to be able to manage one's emotions and to activate the processes of retardation in the game.

Nowadays in various sports a set of methods of the psychological influence representing various types of preparation - autogenic training, ideomotor training, breathing exercises, pedagogical mindset etc. - is used. The most recognition have been deserved by the following ones:

1. Variants of the autogenic training (G.I. Kraynov, O.R. Arnold, 1980).

2. Ideomotor training (A.A. Belkin, 1983; R. Naydiffer, 1979).

3. Breathing exercises (K.V. Dyneyka, 1986).

4. Emotional and volitional preparation (A.T. Filatov etc., 1979).

5. Different variants of relaxation (K.V. Dyneyka, 1986).

6. Pedagogical mindset (G.N. Sytin, 1990, 2007).

The main thing in the process of preparation of referees is reduction of the level of the emotional excitation before the game and in the process of work of the referee, determination of the balance between the processes of excitation and retardation. Besides the psychological methods of preparation reduction of the level of the emotional excitation is facilitated by the availability of the optimal physical preparedness which gives a reserve of confidence upon work connected with the emotional excitation. The referee shall withstand physical loads, his internal organs and respiratory system shall work under his control, which is necessary at the decisive moments of the game. Methods of self-mind-setting used in the process of preparation assist to reduction of the excess excitation, reduce nervousness, give confidence, tune to work, mobilize especially in difficult times.

An important factor affecting the efficiency of the referee's work is the mind-setting enabling the referee to manage himself, his state and acts at difficult moments of his work consciously. Pre-game setting regulates the level of excitation of the referee and helps him to cope with emotions and nervous excitation. In the national and foreign literature on the given topic of preparation of sport referees there are no enough publications describing tricks and methods of self-regulation of the psychical state applied by the latter. Nevertheless, such researches have been performed with sportsmen. However, in the given papers there is no strict sequence and the number of repeats.

The autogenic training as a method of management of one's state was offered by the Austrian psychiatrist I. Schultz in 1932. It positively affects restoration of the psychical, physical activity and of the work capacity in general.

The emotional and volitional preparation represents a system of autogenic and hetero-psychological influences applied both within the training sessions and competitions and outside them. According to A.T. Filatiov, the given system includes the following stages:

1. Education of personal properties upon selection of adequate methods of the psychological regulation.

2. Education to calming methods of self-regulation.

3. Education to mobilizing methods of self-regulation.

4. Self-mind-setting to formation of the goal and tasks.

5. Regulation of the emotional state during the work.

6. Pacification after the work.

Practical refereeing is extremely necessary for formation of the referee, especially under the control of the trainer-teacher, a mentor. The most specialists in the area of the sport refereeing coincide that the most effective methods of increase of the quality of refereeing are the game and competitive ones as they are maximally close to working conditions. It requires a high level of the discipline, concentration of attention, mobility and cooperation from the referee. Such games help to acquire stability, reliability, experience and mastery and to fix skills.

Competitive or game preparation gives real feelings, brings the referee closer to the situation in which he will be during official games. The refereeing practice is the main criterion of the growth. Game method provides a complex development of physical qualities and improvement of motor skills and abilities as in the process of the game they appear in the close interaction. The factor of emotionality assists to formation of a stable positive motivation, increase of the level of readiness of referees, stimulation of the maximum manifestation of motor abilities and detects the level of their development, evaluates the quality of mastering of motor abilities, provides the maximum physical load and assists to training of the volitional qualities.

Quality of work increases when the referee has an ability to perceive instantly and evaluate the changing information quickly and to make the relevant decisions operatively, to react to situations. It depends on the personality's qualities of the referee. Foreknowledge of the referee, his abilities to forecast any further process of the game affect the quickness of receipt and processing of the incoming information. A well-qualified referee does not look for and wait for fouls, but manages the process of the game and fixes fouls only when they really occur. Thus, upon selection of sport referees it is necessary to account such factors as the intellectual, psychological, pedagogical and physiological ones.

Methods of education to referee's acts are the one of the poorly studied problems in the sport science. At the same time the interest of specialists to the given problem currently grows. It is connected, first of all, with new data on the referee' activity in various sports expanding the borders of knowledge and opportunities upon preparation of referees.

Resolution of tasks of staffing of the referees' corps by well-qualified referees is complicated by the poor volume of the professional information and slow ingress of scientific researches to the given area and their substantiation. In specific works there were attempts to interpret the matters of refereeing from positions of the sportive science, however, on the most important aspects the problem has been developed insufficiently and many of them have become obsolete due to the quick progress of the game and development of the modern technologies.

Works of some authors are aimed, first of all, to research of the problem of preparation of already experienced and acting referees. In the first place, we should name the works of the veteran of the referees' corps of Russia M.A. Davydov who contributed a lot to the system of preparation of referees. M.A. Davydov in his work dedicated to selection and special preparation of the referees' corps evaluated referees from a bit different positions. He studied already prepared referees of various referee categories. M.A. Davydov offered tests for attention and lability of the nervous system.

The authors virtually completely ignore the matter of training of the functional abilities, a complex control of preparedness of referees. Actually there are no data on the experimental verification of the efficiency of proposed preparation programs, and qualitative assessments of a set of the most important factors of preparedness and quality of refereeing as well as strict criteria of the efficiency of work of referees have not been developed.

Information on education and preparation of referees at the initial stage is rather fragmentary. Methods, means, types of exercises for assimilation of skills of basketball refereeing have been described in the published tutorials insufficiently. Description of the movement technique (mechanics of refereeing), control over areas of responsibility on the court is outdated.

Meanwhile, a new mechanics of refereeing appears, i.e. the two - person officiating is being replaced by the three - person officiating, i.e. by the work of three referees on the court. Technique of movement of referees on the court has changed in accordance with the increased speeds in the game. It became more adaptive: instead of running backwards the referee uses the smooth running: acceleration or basketball side-step. All this has been made for the purpose of improvement of the referee's work, his adaptation and maximum control over the game.

There is a valuable material from the practical point of view available in methodical manuals. They describe the technique of interaction with partners, types of preparation of referees before the game, technique of management of the game process. The most of their provisions is topical nowadays as well. However, there is no clear structure of education of referees in the given sources. Therefore, it is necessary to research the given problem both from the theoretical and practical points of view.

In the sport literature the idea of the complex preparation of referees, which includes not only the theory and practice of refereeing but also such important section of preparation as the psychical and psychological preparation, has been reflected.

It is necessary to note that complexes of control normatives have no unified methodical structure and that the level of requirements under specific sections differs significantly. Thus, in the basketball they have removed the reliable and informative test for determination of the physical preparedness of referees – the Cooper test of the endurance, the informative test of the quickness offered by the Euroleague is used not everywhere, the shuttle test, which by its content closely repeated the scheme of movement of the referee during the game, has been cancelled. Despite the importance of normative requirements to referees reflecting the level of their physical shape and theoretical knowledge the main criteria of qualification and preparedness of referees is the immediate analysis of the quality of the practical refereeing.

Matters of preparation of basketball referees have been insufficiently reflected in the scientific and methodical literature. In connection therewith development of the complex methods of preparation of referees, which would be a part of the existing program of preparation of sport referees thus improving it, seems to be actual and topical.

The main components of the complex methods of preparation of referees, in our opinion, are the theoretical and practical parts that are the interrelated ones. Tasks of the theoretical preparation are knowledge of official rules, their interpretation and of the mechanics of officiating. Efficiency of the practical preparation directly depends on the practice of refereeing of basketball games, i.e. on the strict application of the theoretical knowledge.

For the high-quality practice a special physical preparation (quickness, speed endurance) is needed as the referee performs the sufficient volume of the physical work. The criteria of efficiency of the referees' activity developed by us would show an objective picture of their preparedness. Thus, the detailed analysis of the special literature and of the practical experience formed the basis of the complex methods of preparation of basketball referees offered by us.

Fedor Dmitriev, International referee, PhD

Excellence in officiating. An overview.
FIBA
Manual for Basketball Referees'. PHYSICAL TRAINING.
FIBA
Referees' Manual. Three-Person Officiating.
Official Basketball Rules 2010
IOT Individual Officiating Techniques
FIBA
Referees' Manual. Two-Person Officiating.
Official Basketball Rules 2010
NBA approves use of coach's challenge in '19-20
Tim Bontemps
ESPN
LAS VEGAS -- At its annual meeting here during the NBA summer league, the league's board of governors approved a pair of changes for next season: the use of a coach's challenge and the league's replay center initiating replay proceedings for certain types of plays.

The NBA's competition committee proposed both changes, which earned unanimous support from the league's 30 teams.

The coach's challenge, which has been used in the NBA's G League for each of the past two seasons and has been in place for this year's summer league, will be used next season by the NBA on a one-year trial basis.

Teams can use one challenge per game regardless of whether it is successful, and it can be utilized to question a call in a variety of scenarios, including a personal foul, an out-of-bounds call, goaltending or basket interference. The challenge can be used at any point during the game. However, in the final two minutes of the fourth quarter or overtime, any out of bounds, goaltending or basket-interference calls will be automatically triggered for review and are not challengeable.

To challenge a play, a team must have a timeout and call one after the play, and then its coach must twirl his finger toward the referees to signal for the challenge. If a team doesn't have a timeout and attempts to challenge a play, it will be charged a technical foul and no challenge will occur. There must be clear and conclusive visual evidence to overturn a call.

Meanwhile, the league's replay center in Secaucus, New Jersey, is now able to instantly call for the review of two types of plays: whether a shot is a 2- or 3-pointer (both for made baskets to determine which it is, as well as when a player is fouled while shooting, to determine whether he gets two or three free throws), and for a potential shot-clock violation.

The league will now have a "courtside administrator," a new position hired and supervised by the NBA's league office, positioned at the scorer's table to speed up the communication between the replay center and the on-court referees.

First meeting with Referees and 3PO
FIBA
The Anne Panther Story, The Insider Documentary from Euroleague Basketball
Calling the Shots: The Anne Panther Story, the newest entry in the Euroleague Basketball Insider Documentary Series, compellingly answers the question: What does it take to become the first woman referee to officiate at the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four?
FIBA
FIBA Metronome Test.
Sound.
FIBA Eurobasket 2021 Qualifiers
Guidelines
Time management. Clock recognition.
CanDo Basketball Presentation
13th FIBA European Women's Basketball Summit 2019
With one of the participant's own eyes. Dinara Safarova - Russian referee
The 13th FIBA summit was held in Postojna – a small town in the South-Western side of Slovenia.

This camp was intended only for women - 2 players from each country under 15 years old plus 1 referee and 1 coach.

Every morning began with warm-up.
Every day the exercises were different - at first running around the stadium, after that either running exercises, stretching or TABATA – effective exercises to train different muscle groups.

Then we met in a classroom, where we were listening to the lectures about basic skills of 3PO, IOT, criteria of unsportsmanlike foul. We have also discussed the specificity and differences of female officiating.
Camp's lecturers were FIBA referees Özlem Yalman (Turkey) and Susanna Karolina Andersson (Finland).

One of the days Maria Stepanova - the outstanding player of Russian National basketball team visited the camp
After the lectures we officiated the games. There were 2 gyms in which the tournament was organized among the participants of the camp.

During the games lecturers were working all the time - they evaluated our job oncourt and gave feedback for everyone.

At the end of the game day all the referees had to write down their positive sides and moments we needed to improve. Based on the analysis of the games lecturers evaluated the dynamics of our improvement.

One of the days Maria Stepanova - the outstanding player of Russian National basketball team visited the camp, sharing her experience to young players, and also answered the questions of the players, coaches and referees.

Each referee was trying to show their best and in the last day an All Star Game was organized - the best players and coaches were selected for this.

As we had too many referees here, lecturers decided to make 4 teams of 3PO each quarter. I was a crew chief of the first team of referees.
At the end of the match a closing ceremony was organized, where best players, coaches and referees got their awards.

The best trio of 29 referees was outlined – officials from Russia, Slovenia and Austria.
This summit gave me unforgettable emotions, new experience and I met a lot of new friends. I'm so grateful to each and every one who gave me the chance of being here!


Dinara Safarova.

How NBA referee Ashley Moyer-Gleich dealt with F-bombs and B-words to earn respect in a man's world
By David Jones | [email protected]
By David Jones/PennLive

Camp Hill resident Ashley Moyer-Gleich is in her second month as the fourth-ever female NBA referee. The former Cedar Crest and Millersville guard wasn't planning to be a ref at all but a college coach. Now she laughs in amazement at how quickly it's all happened. At just 31, she's become the fastest-rising young official in the game's modern history.

Earlier this month, I spoke to her by phone in Indianapolis on the eve of her ninth game as an NBA ref -- about her meteoric rise, how she's changed her approach to deal with players who've tested her, and exactly what she loves about a job that's a dream from which she never wants to awaken.

In February of 2016, Ashley Moyer-Gleich was a 28-year-old officiating a Division III women's basketball game at Lancaster Bible College when two men she'd never met knocked on the door to the officials' dressing room. She answered. They asked if they could speak with her.

Al Battista and J.B. Caldwell were talent scouts. They had shown up early to check out the officials working the prior game of a doubleheader at the gym, a men's game with men's officials. They had not expected to stick around or what they saw. But they were so intrigued by this young woman running the game with an athletic confidence and skill that they had a proposition on the spot.

Moyer-Gleich as a starting senior guard for Millersville in 2009. Millersville Univ.
Moyer-Gleich, a former Cedar Crest High School and Millersville University guard, was up until that point, using her officiating gig pretty much as a means to an end. She had earned a bachelor's degree in biology and a Masters in sports management from Millersville. She was an adjunct professor at Messiah College teaching a course in Sport & Wellness.

And though she had without question caught the refs' bug and had a dream of one day reffing at the Division I women's college level, she had by no means yet committed to it as a career.

But Caldwell, head of operations for NBA officiating, had a question for her that changed all of that:

"He asked me, 'Did you ever think about being an NBA referee?'"

Moyer-Gleich still has to chuckle a little at her own reaction:

"I was like, 'What? What are you talking about?'"

Less than three years later, that's exactly what she's doing. Moyer-Gleich is an NBA ref. The Lebanon native, now living in Camp Hill with her college-referee husband, is in the middle of her first season officiating the greatest basketball players – and arguably the greatest athletes – in the world.

Moyer-Gleich huddles with NBA crew members Jason Phillips (left) and Karl Lane (right) during a timeout. Getty Images
And she is laughing a lot. First, because she's having a hard time believing what she's suddenly doing for a living. And then because she's having so much fun doing it.

Far from the dour and persnickety stereotype of a major-league official, Moyer-Gleich fairly bursts with personality in person. She laughs reflexively. She is, by her own account, a happy, empathetic and forgiving person, living amid a strict professional world of rules and enforcement.

The incongruity of it is probably enough to sprout a smile in anyone who first chats with her and then discovers what she does for a living. It's like meeting a breezy travel writer who's also a beat cop.

But the common denominator of what makes her a living and what makes her happy is simple. It's her favorite game:

"I've always just loved basketball. But I loved to play it. I wasn't sitting in the house watching it very often."

Ashley at age 10 with her father Dave after winning MVP of a travel league holiday tournament in 1997 in Manheim Twp.
Moyer-Gleich, daughter of Dave Moyer, a former Lebanon High teammate of eventual NBA center Sam Bowie, was a starting combo guard for a Millersville team that made it to the NCAA Division II Sweet 16 her senior year in 2010. Her teenage aspiration was to be a sports-medicine physician or a coach.

But a serendipitous encounter with an officiating class, suggested by her college coach as a primer to be a better coach herself, led to a change in plans.

And very quickly – as fast as any modern NBA official has ever progressed through the training ranks of the NBA's minor "G-League" and WNBA women's league to the bigs – Moyer-Gleich has become one of the officials of a game the world watches.

"Some of the things I get to see these players do with their athleticism, it's incredible," she said by phone before a recent NBA game in Indianapolis. "The speed, the power, the strength, the agility. And the finesse of basketball.

"It all intrigues me. The offenses, the defenses. I love it all so much."

How she got from there to here so quickly is a story of a friendly and inquisitive little girl who was taught the game by her father and perseverance by her mother. What sprouted, unknown to either, was the fourth-ever female NBA referee, following league pioneer and recently retired Violet Palmer (1997-2016), dismissed current NCAA ref Dee Kantner (1997-2002) and current NBA official Lauren Holtkamp (2014-present).
Moyer-Gleich discusses a foul call with Pacers point guard Cory Joseph. Getty Images
"Ashley always had a certain fearlessness about her," said her mother Patty Roman. "She never sought the spotlight, but she was never afraid of it either."

Good officials share just such dual quality. The best walk an unseen and undulating ridge between stealthy and evident, weaving between each depending upon the flow of a game.

"She was never afraid to be the first one to try something or step out of her comfort zone," Roman added, "even if she maybe was scared or nervous inside. She just did it anyway."

Any spectator sport is ultimately for the fans. And so, the way officials manage it has a great impact on its enjoyment. Badly officiated games aren't just inequitable for the players and coaches, they spoil the show for the audience.


The main difference between the good refs and the not-so-great is that those who love the game, as a player or fan does, tend to manage it better. It's like the difference between a police officer who treats every event by the letter of the law and one who genuinely loves his community and cares about its people.
The best refs don't simply enforce rules. They are caretakers of the game. The ones who really love the game are just better at their jobs.
In that way, Moyer-Gleich clearly has a leg up:
- "There are so many great qualities and characteristics I've learned just from playing basketball. And now it's my job, my career. I'm so lucky."
When I asked exactly what she loves about basketball and officiating it, I could hear her the smile in her voice over the phone. I thought of the teenage reporter asking the rock star what he loves about music at the end of Almost Famous. He pauses for a moment and then says, "Everything."
Moyer-Gleich began listing all the ways:

"I love the control of what I do now like the way I loved being a point guard. Which is sort of funny, because we can't control what the players are going to do. So, it's probably more psychological. Thinking I'm in control. But really, at the end of the day, I'm probably not."

And then there's the spectacle of it:

"Part of the advice I've gotten from veteran referees, the guys who've been doing this for 20 years, is, they'll tell you, 'When you go out there, take a second and soak it in.'

"You can't do it during the games because you're so busy. But before and hopefully after when we get to say, 'Job well done,' we get to relish what we do and how lucky we are."

Ashley Moyer-Gleich discusses a call with San Antonio Spurs coach Gregg Popovich.

Getty Images

She admits having done just that. Earlier this month, Moyer-Gleich did her first game with the San Antonio Spurs and Los Angeles Lakers at once. The game's greatest active coach and greatest active player, simultaneously – the Spurs' 5-time NBA champion head coach Gregg Popovich and 3-time champion and de facto annual player of the year, LeBron James.

"I always have the butterflies in my stomach before these games. But there's a little extra when you referee the studs."

This has happened to a young woman who became involved in officiating almost by accident and not until just seven years ago. In 2012, she was not quite 25, studying for her Masters and was the grad assistant for the Millersville women's team.

In her plans was to apply for an assistant coaching job with a women's program. So, Millersville coach Mary Fleig suggested she take a test for officials in order to learn the game better. Included was a 6-week course that featured officiating an AAU under-13 age-group game.


The then-Ashley Moyer with future husband and fellow ref Johnee Gleich after she was assigned to the 2013 Mid-Penn Conference high school championship.
That's all Moyer-Gleich needed to catch the bug:

"I just fell in love with it. There was this power that came over me where I was able to teach the players as I learned myself – that's a foul, this isn't. I learned the game all over in a completely different capacity. I had played and coached, but here I was relearning the game from the viewpoint of the rules. Going from a player to a referee, you think you know the rules, but you don't. It consumed me."

That was it. Moyer-Gleich applied to be a PIAA girls official, passed the test and became a Mid-Penn Conference ref.

During her training, she was shadowed by a young PIAA boys ref named Johnee Gleich. Shadowed very effectively, by all evidence. They were married 3 ½ years ago. Gleich currently works NCAA men's D-I games in the Atlantic 10, Northeast, Colonial and Big South conferences.

Moyer-Gleich lofts the opening tip of the 2016 NCAA Division III national championship.
NCAA photo
The next summer, she worked her first Division III college camp and was subsequently hired to work D-III women's games during the 2013-14 season. A year later, she was doing D-II women's games in the PSAC and Mountain East. And by 2015-16, she was hired to work D-I women's games in the MAAC and in March was chosen to do the D-III women's national championship game in Grand Rapids, Mich.
So, every year, she's climbed another rung. She had no agent and no special connections. She was just so good that she was consistently noticed.

And that's when Battista and Caldwell saw and noticed her – and made the offer that changed her life and started her first entrée into officiating grown men, the G-League.


The irony of all this was not lost on her. Here she was a 28-year-old woman who had stumbled into officiating as a side gig to make a little extra coin on the way to being a coach. She'd only been reffing in any capacity for 4 years and had barely worked with males at all. Meanwhile, some men alongside her had been officiating almost as long as she'd been alive, their sole objective to someday work in the NBA:

"I didn't even watch the NBA. I was just a fan of basketball. So, learning the nuances, the rules, of a grown-man's game… I had no clue."

But Battista and Caldwell weren't the only NBA administrators who believed in her. She had a powerful person in her corner.

As had Battista, the NBA's director of referee performance, and perhaps the most well-known basketball official in the world, had noticed her amid the mad scramble and relative chaos of AAU summer camps. And Joe Crawford liked what he saw:

"You could see she just had it. She had strength. She could run. Nothing bothered her. Nothing fazed her. You could see it, in like, 10 minutes."

Why is that important?

"Because if I can see it, the players and coaches can see it. It's an acceptance thing. A believability thing. And she just had it.

"I've seen her in a lot of different venues now – G-League, WNBA, NBA. And she carries herself as a pro. She is a pro."



Moyer-Gleich (right) as part of a historic all-female G-League crew with Clare Aubry (left) and Toni Patillo (center) on Nov. 18.
Moyer-Gleich was fast-tracked into the higher echelon of the 200 or so refs basically trying out during April AAU camps, observed and taught by NBA officials during Thursday-Sunday long weekends split between classroom and games.

Not quite believing the level at which she was now, her goal was simply to be a better ref. Her basic outlook was: "This will make me a really good college official."

But the NBA observers loved her. Not only on the court, but a particular answer she gave during a classroom talk. The candidates were asked what their ultimate goals were. Many said they wanted to be NBA or WNBA officials.

Moyer-Gleich's answer: "I said I wanted to be a sponge."

Not an ambition to gain a major-league level. Merely an aspiration simply to be better.

"It was a big adjustment. Learning that dynamic, being a female in a male-dominated world. So, the first half of my first G-League season was very difficult."

Battista helped her with regular videotape sessions, attempting to "speed up her eyes" and get her to react more quickly to the upgrade in pace of the pro game. But that wasn't the half of it. There was an intimidation factor going on with grown males:

"I had players smack the ball out of my hands. I had players tell me, 'You don't know what you're talking about, bitch."

Not only was Moyer-Gleich being tested because she was a woman, she was dealing with some feral cats, the vast majority of whom will never see an NBA court but merely the hopeless squalor of minor-league outposts like Fort Wayne, Ind.; Sioux Falls, S.D.; and McAllen, Texas.

Moyer-Gleich's empathetic side wanted to understand their frustration: "These guys have very little to lose compared with NBA players. One G-League coach told us [during an officiating seminar]: 'It's like jail. All the players are trying to get out.

"And that's how they act sometimes. They can be crazier than anything I've experienced so far in the NBA. It was a struggle at first dealing with those personalities."

Recently retired referee Joey Crawford, who worked 50 NBA Finals and 313 NBA Playoffs games during a 40-season pro career, has given Moyer-Gleich the thumps-up as a rising officiating talent.
Getty Images
In order to deal, Moyer-Gleich had to adjust her own personality which she says tends toward deferential and kind and accommodating:

"So, it was very difficult for me to pull out this persona – I'm a tough broad. Don't mess with me. I'll put you in your place.

"I had to learn quickly how to flip that switch on. They were just going to keep testing me until I stood up for myself and stood my ground and used my authority – within the rules and being fair."
Moyer-Gleich said she had many more experienced referees help her out with advice. But none was a more important mentor than Ray Acosta, then a 4th-year G-League official, now an NBA ref, too. He advised a method for dealing with unruly players:

"He called it, 'Pulling out my inner bitch.' It was difficult for me to learn how to do that. Because it's not who I am in regular life."

But she compartmentalized her on-court persona as business, part of doing her job. Once she delivered a few technical fouls – especially when players used the "F-word" in appraisals of her calls – the recalcitrance magically evaporated.
While her partners tried to separate a scuffle between the Bulls' Robin Lopez (top cluster) and the Thunder's Jerami Grant (bottom cluster) on Dec. 17 in Oklahoma City, Moyer-Gleich (left) called in an arena security guard (gray jacket) just in case. She texted the next day: "[Thunder coach] Billy Donovan said I shoulda got the game ball signed for my first scrum. ... I can laugh now. I was not laughing last night!"
ESPN
Moyer-Gleich only reached that threshold after a memorable play in the middle of her first G-League season. She had absorbed a player yelling, "That's a f---ing foul!" without reacting. Using an F-bomb in any way addressing an official is understood as unacceptable. But the rookie let it go:

"I didn't handle it. A more veteran referee had to come over and handle it right in front of me. Which, when someone comes over and does something over the top of you like that, it makes you feel about as tiny as an ant."

And her boss, G League officiating supervisor George Toliver, was at the game. He summoned her to a post-game meeting and basically echoed Acosta's advice.

The next night, Moyer-Gleich T'd up three different players. She spoke with Toliver and told him what happened. His essential feedback: Well done.

The next time she saw the F-bomb-ranting player, he actually apologized.
In 2017, Moyer-Gleich was designated for the "enhanced" referee track, the top 15 or so G-League officials that NBA brass feel are headed for the big league. They are paid more. They get a guaranteed 50 games, half as crew chief. And they are clearly being studied for the possible jump to the NBA.

Then, Moyer-Gleich was hired to also work WNBA games during the past summer. Finally, on Nov. 15, she got the call that she was being brought up to the bigs – along with Natalie Sago – as the fourth- and fifth-ever female NBA referees.

Was she surprised?

"I was pretty freakin' shocked, yeah. I mean, this is the fastest that anyone has gone from the G to the NBA – two years."

One of the first calls she made was to Crawford who had helped with her craft through the past year, going over her tapes and guiding her progress:

"I said, 'I just wanted to tell you, I got the call. And I adore you!' He laughed and said, 'I adore you, too.' [She giggled at the giddy memory.] And I said, 'Not as much as I adore you!'"

And somewhere in that delirious haze, she called her mother. Patty Roman is still processing it all more than a month later:

"Ashley always had the maturity to pivot and believe. It's now led down an interesting path.

"As her mom, I find it surreal. Watching her grow up and seeing the passion she had for playing basketball and/or anything else to do with it, and being all-in. And now seeing her not only work at what's her passion, but also maybe create a legacy.

"What mom wouldn't love that? I can't imagine anything more wonderful for a parent to see for their child."

Ashley toasting the news that she'd made it to the NBA with her mother Patricia Roman.
FIBA
FIBA Referees' Elite Yo-Yo Test.
Sound.
FIBA
FIBA Referees' Elite Yo-Yo Test
FIBA
Workshop Communication
Treviso June 2018
Video Situations
Case 1
Video
Case 2
Video
Case 3
Video
RUSSIAN BASKETBALL FEDERATION
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Mechanics exercises
Part 2
Presentation
Russian Basketball Federation
Education Department
CHECK-IN – CHECK-OUT
Presentation
RBF
Mechanics exercises
Presentation
FIBA
ISSUES RELATED TO THE OFFICIATING RELATIONSHIPS
FIBA
Play Situations: Interpretating Contact
FIBA
Improve Your...
Mental Training -
POST-GAME EVALUATION
FIBA
FIBA 3x3 Official Rules of the Game – Official Interpretations
April 2019
FIBA
FIBA 3x3 Official Rules of the Game
January 2019
FIBA
FIBA 3x3 Statisticians' Manual
As of 10th April 2019
FIBA
Official 3x3 Basketball Equipment & Software
Appendix to the 3x3 Official Rules
FIBA
Introduction to 3-Person Mechanics teaching
FIBA
FIBA Table Officials MANUAL
Version 3.0
February 2019
FIBA Basketball
INSTANT REPLAY SYSTEM (IRS)
Manual for the Referees
and IRS-Operators
FIBA
Jet Lag Management
Euroleague Basketball
2018-19 Official Basketball Rules Changes
CAN DO Basketball
Nunn's Nine
Play situations for Lead, Trail and Centre
Referee camp in Russia
Organized by FIBA referee, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences – Fedor Dmitriev with support from MOFB (local federation) and Russian Basketball Federation (RBF)
May 18-22, 2019 in Dzerzhinsky, Moscow Region
It's a well-known fact that camps for young referees regularly take place in Moscow Region. They are organized by FIBA referee, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences – Fedor Dmitriev with support from MOFB (local federation) and Russian Basketball Federation (RBF). This time the camp took place on May 18-22 in Dzerzhinsky, Moscow Region during Qualification to Russian U15 Championship and was attended by more than 40 referees from different parts of the Russian Federation from Omsk to Kursk and from St. Petersburg to Rostov-on-Don.
Good accommodation, sports infrastructure and lecture room provided by local "Orbita" sports school let the referees to study and practice from early morning till late evening. It is worth noticing that every morning started from intense outdoor athletic practice (for more than 2 hours!). During the clinic participants took several physical tests
including FIBA Fitness test, Cooper test and had lots of 3PO practice.
After morning exercise young referees attended lectures before the start of the games. There were usually a couple of lectures. The topics were: "Unsportsmanlike foul", "Technical foul", "Traveling", "Game control and management", "Individual officiating technique", "3PO mechanics" and many others. Also, there were theoretical tests including FIBA rules test and video (20 clips) and mechanics test.
Then guys have had an opportunity to apply new knowledge into practice. Tough and equal games officiated in 3PO were observed by instructors. Top RFB referees Semen Ovinov, Evgeniy Ostrovskiy, Ivan Bakhteyev, Alexey Revenko, Sergey Fakhritdinov and RFB commissioner Anton Zhuk visited the clinic this time. Having feedback from experienced colleagues with the help of videos from games was a good opportunity to improve and develop skills. Such experience was very valuable and useful both for those who start and pursue their referee careers.
At the end of every day there was a meeting with group discussion of interesting moments from games and nominations for the next ones. Each participant successfully passed all the tests and requirements and was awarded a certificate as well as individual recommendations.
Camp pour des arbitres à Dzerzhinskiy
Le Département de l'Éducation des arbitres à l'aide de la Fédération Russe de Basketball (RBF) et de la Fédération de Basketball de la région Moscovite organise des Camps pour des jeunes arbitres. Fedor Dmitriev — arbitre international, instructeur FIBA et candidat ès sciences pédagogiques — dirige l'organisation du Camp qui a eu lieu de 18 à 22 mai non loin de Moscou, à Dzerzhinskiy. La Qualification au Championnat de la Russie U15 est servie de base pratique : les participant ont travaillé sur les matchs.

Les conditions de séjour, l'infrastructure sportive et la salle pour les conférences accordées par l'école de basket locale « Orbita » favorisaient le dur travail des participants dès petit matin jusqu'au soir. Il est à noter que les matins commençaient par plus de deux heures d'exercices physiques en plein air : échauffement, test Métronome, test de Cooper et entraînement des mécaniques 3PO.

Après avoir fini les exercices, les arbitres viennent au gymnase pour assister aux conférences théoriques qui dureraient jusqu'au début des matchs.

Les participants se mettent à appliquer leurs nouvelles connaissances sur le terrain. Les matchs intéressants arbitrés en 3PO sous la surveillance des instructeurs qui sont des arbitres actuels c'est une brillante possibilité de perfectionner son arbitrage.

Les remarques et conseils fondées sur les vidéos et observations sont un clé nécessaire pour des jeunes referees qui commencent leur vie d'arbitre.

Chaque journée a été finie par la réunion générale à l'hôtel ou on a dressé le bilan et a annoncé les désignations pour le lendemain. Les observateurs du Camp étaient :
Semen Ovinov (ex-arbitre FIBA, actuel arbitre de l'Euroleague et du VTB), Evgeniy Ostrovskiy (instructeur national FIBA), Ivan Bakhteev et Aleksey Revenko (VTB tous les deux) etc.

Les cinq jours du Camp ont permis aux jeunes arbitres, avant de passer des testes sur le Règlement FIBA et un vidéo-test sur 20 clips, d'assister aux conférences sur « la Faute Antisportive », « le Marcher », « Contrôle et administration du jeu », « Mécaniques 3PO ».

Tous les participants ont reçu non seulement des Certificats prouvant qu'ils ont passé le Camp, mais aussi des recommandations individuelles qui aideront à améliorer leur niveau d'arbitrage.
2018-2019 NBA Points of Education

NBA Preseason POE
2017-18 NCAA Men's Basketball
Mechanics video
2017-18 NCAA Men's Basketball
Instructional Training video
FIBA
3x3 Official Rules of the Game
The Official FIBA Basketball Rules of the Game are valid for all game situations not specifically mentioned in
the 3x3 Rules of the Game herein.
3x3 Official Rules of the Game – Official Interpretations
The aim of this document is to convert the principles and concepts of the rulebook into practical and specific situations as they might arise during a normal 3x3 game.
The referee shall have the full power and authority to make decisions on any point not specifically covered in the 3x3 Official Rules of the Game or in the following 3x3 Official Interpretations
FIBA
2018
Instant Replay System (IRS)
Review procedure & techniques
FIBA
2018 FAKE A FOUL. Signs of fakes.
UNSPORTSMANLIKE FOUL / ART 37
FIBA Presentation
Watch the Presentation
FIBA
FIBA GAME officials licensing 2017+
OPERATIONS MANUAL FOR NATIONAL
MEMBER FEDERATIONS for the PERIOD 2019-2021
FIBA
End of Period / End of Game
FIBA Presentation
FIBA
Officials Licensing 2017+. Training for Written Test
FIBA
Improve Your...
Mental Training -
CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTION
FIBA Presentation
Russian Basketball Federation
Education Department
CHECK-IN - CHECK-OUT
Presentation
FIBA
Improve Your...
Mental Training -
VISUALISATION AND IMAGERY
FIBA Presentation
Teamwork in modern officiating
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