Principles of the general physical preparation
General physical preparation provides the comprehensive physical development and increase of the level of general work capacity of the referee, creates preconditions for efficient manifestation of special physical properties. Referees and sportsmen quickly lose their physical shape if they stop any exercises for a long period of time, and they don't always manage to get the physical shape back and to lose the excess weight quickly and easily. Therefore, the basis, a foundation of readiness to competitions of a new season shall be laid within the period of preparation to main competitions.
For basketball referees the following expression is fair: "your legs are your eyes". The referee can get tired mentally from the psychological pressure at the end of the game, buy never physically. He always shall be in the right place, at the right time on the court to make a correct decision. It is necessary to understand that unprepared and untrained referee will not simply manage to track the process of the game and to react to action of players. Such a referee will mistaken for sure.
When officiating basketball games referees load their knee and ankle joints carrying the main load due to the great number of stoppages, shifts of movement direction etc. If you want to be a professional referee you should maintain the good physical shape constantly. Therefore, physical preparation is the one of determining factors upon preparation of well-qualified referees.
According to the data of researches, the basketball referee when refereeing two - person officiating runs about 4.5–5.5 kilometers, and in case three - person officiating – up to 4 kilometers per game. Therefore, basketball referees shall be well prepared to the physical work within the whole game, i.e. to be able to perform their work at the necessary due level for a long period of time without any visible ultimate exhaustion.
High tension of games requires from referees constant manifestation of the endurance, i.e. the ability to withstand the exhaustion appearing as a result of the load. The referee having a sufficient endurance can retain high productivity for a longer time and demonstrate stable performance of his work. And the good endurance give the referee an additional opportunity to adapt to the emotional and stress background in the game situation and to restore after the load quickly.
Aerobic capabilities of the human increase by trainings of the moderate and high intensity with the heart rate of 120–150 beats per minute and duration of work of from 30 to 45 minutes. Aerobic training lays the base for faster restoration of the organism after the load, as well as for more efficient oxygen consumption and its delivery to working muscles for production of the energy. Aerobic trainings are held with the periodicity of 2–3 sessions per week with the duration of up to 1 hour. These are ordinary cross running, walking and swimming with the subsequent graduate increase of the volume.
Improvement of the endurance is exercised continuously within the whole season. In order to determine intensity of physical exercises they use the heart rate indexes. If the heart rate at training exercises lies within the limits of 150 beats per minute, the load is directed to increase of the aerobic abilities of the referee (general endurance), if the heart rate is about 180 beats per minute or higher – the load is directed to increase of the anaerobic abilities, i.e. the speed endurance. Therefore, upon preparation of the referee to the forthcoming season it is necessary to provide correspondence of training loads and influence on the organism to the functional abilities and the level of preparation of the referee, as forcing of the load will only harm and may result in unforeseen injuries.